Terms & Definitions

Term | Name | Definition | Units |
---|---|---|---|

AEPF | Average Effective Pedaling Force | the average pedaling force applied to the pedal that causes the crank to turn around a complete revolution and contributes to effectively moving the bike forward | Newtons (N) |

ATL | Acute Training Load | a rolling short-term (default is seven days) or an athlete's training load | TSS per day |

Cad | Cadence | Pedaling revolutions per minute | RPM |

CIL | Chronic Intensity Load | an indicator of how the quality of training is progressing through the season; CIL = [(1000* Today's IF) * (1-e^(-1/42)] + {Yesterday's CIL * (e^(-1/42)] | |

CPV | Circumferential Pedal Velocity | how fast the pedal moves around the circle it makes while pedaling | IF per day |

CTL | Chronic Training Load | a rolling long-term (default is six weeks) of an athlete's training load | TSS per day |

EF | Efficiency Factor | Normalized power (NP) or Normalized Graded Pace (NGP) divided by average heart rate for a workout or a selected portion of a workout | |

Fmax | Fmax | maximal ground reaction force, based on stance time, cadence, and weight | Newtons (N) or g force |

Form | Form, or another term for TSB | an athlete's readiness to perform at peak | TSS per day |

FRC | Functional Reserve Capacity | the total amount of work that can be done during continuous exercise above FTP (functional threshold power) before fatigue occurs | kJ or J/kg |

FTP | Functional Threshold Power | the highest power a rider can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatiguing | Watts |

GCT | Ground Contact Time | the amount of time your foot is in contact with the ground on each stride | ms |

GPA | Gross Power Absorbed | the power in a pedal stroke that does NOT contribute to moving the bicycle forward | Watts |

GPR | Gross Power Released | the power that contributes to moving the bicycle forward; there is both positive and negative power in each pedal stroke by each leg | Watts |

grade | Grade | average grade over the entire range selected in the RHE | |

HR | Heart Rate | the number of times your heart beats per minute | BPM |

IF | Intensity Factor | the ratio of Normalized Power to Functional Threshold Power | Ratio of NP:FTP |

KI | Kurtotic Index | the ratio of the maximum effective pedal force to the average effective pedal force during the power-producing phase of the pedal stroke | |

Kleg | Kleg | the leg spring stiffness constant | |

Max | Maximum | the highest of a collection of numbers | N/A |

MEPF | Maximum Effective Pedaling Force | the maximum pedaling force applied to the pedal that causes the crank to turn around a complete revolution and contributes to effectively moving the bike forward | |

mFTP | Modeled FTP | the estimated/modeled FTP supplied by the Power Duration Model in WKO4; mFTP is not directly linked to TSS or PMC metrics and is a guide to help you better establish your sFTP | Watts |

MMP | Mean Max Power | the single highest power number achieved for a select time range | Watts |

NP | Normalized Power | estimated average power of a workout if it had been completed at a constant power output | |

Pa:Hr | Pace to Heart Rate | the relationship between pace and heart rate | |

PDC | Power Duration Curve | an estimate of the relationship between time to exhaustion and work rate during both anaerobic and aerobic exercise | W or W/kg |

Pmax | Pmax | the maximal power that can be generated for a very short period of time over at least a full pedal revolution with both legs | W or W/kg |

Ramp | Ramp Rate | the rate at which CTL (chronic training load) is rising or declining | TSS per day |

RE | Running Effectiveness | the ratio of speed to power; the inverse of the effective horizontal retarding force that a runner must overcome to achieve a particular speed | kg per Newton |

rgrade | Rolling Grade | second by second grade, calculated as grade with a little smoothing applied to elevation to remove obvious noise/measurement errors; requires elapseddistance and elevation | |

RPM | Rotations Per Minute | used with cadence | RPM |

sFTP | Set FTP | the user-defined and user-set FTP in WKO4; the base calculation for all TSS and PMC metrics | Watts |

SLR | Simple Linear Regression | a method of predicting scores on one variable based on the scores on a second variable; produces a line representing the best-fitting straight line through the predicted scores | N/A |

Stamina | Stamina | a measure of resistance to fatigue during prolonged duration, moderate intensity (i.e., sub-FTP) exercise | % of Max (0-100%) |

TiZ | Time in Zone | cumulative (but not necessarily consecutive) time spent in a specific training zone | H:M:S (time) |

TSB | Training Stress Balance | intersection of CTL (chronic training load) and ATL (acute training load); an athlete's readiness to perform at peak | TSS per day |

TSS | Training Stress Score | the total workload of a ride as a function of duration and intensity | TSS |

TTE | Time to Exhaustion | the maximum duration for which a power equal to FTP can be maintained | H:M:S (time) |

VAM | Velocita Ascensionale Media | average ascent speed (the acronym and term are Italian) | m/h |

Vertical oscillation | Vertical oscillation | how much your center-of-mass bounces or travels up-and-down while running | cm |

VI | Variability Index | the measure of how smooth or evenly paced an athlete's power output was during a race or workout | |

WAC | Williams Allen Coggan | "Against World Class" - measured power duration curve against world class curve |

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